The Logde at Gold River
Fish Species

Steelhead & Rainbow Trout | Salmon | Cutthroat Trout | Dolly Varden | Bull Trout

Steelhead & Rainbow Trout

Wikipedia Reference:

The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), also called the redband trout, is a species of salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America as well as much of the central, western, eastern, and especially the northern portions of the United States. The ocean going (anadromous) form (including those returning for spawning) are known as steelhead, or ocean trout (Australia). The species has been introduced for food or sport to at least 45 countries, and every continent except Antarctica. In some of these locations, such as Australia and South America, they have had very serious negative impacts on upland native fish species, either by eating them, outcompeting them or transmitting contagious diseases. In some cases, they have been responsible for the extinction of native fish populations.

The species was originally named by Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792. In 1855, W. P. Gibbons found a population and named it Salmo iridia, however this name became deprecated once it was determined that this was a population of the already named species. More recently, DNA studies showed rainbow trout are genetically closer to Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus species) than brown trout (Salmo trutta) or Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), so the genus was changed.

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Wikipedia Reference:

Salmon is the common name for several species of fish of the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the family are called trout. Salmon live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, as well as the Great Lakes and other land locked lakes.

Typically, salmon are anadromous: they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. Folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn; research indicates that at least 90% of the fish that spawn in a particular stream were born there. In Alaska, the crossing-over to other streams allows salmon to populate new streams, such as those that emerge as a glacier retreats. The precise method salmon use to navigate has not been entirely established, though their keen sense of smell is involved. In all species of Pacific salmon, the mature individuals die within a few days or weeks of spawning, a trait known as semelparity. However, even in those species of salmon that may survive to spawn more than once (iteroparity), post-spawning mortality is quite high (perhaps as high as 40 to 50%.) Those species average about two or, perhaps, three spawning events per individual.

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Cutthroat Trout

Wikipedia Reference:

The cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is one of the many fish species colloquially known as trout.

Cutthroat trout are native to western North America. Some (anadromous) populations live primarily in the Pacific Ocean as adults and return to fresh water from fall through early spring, to feed on freshwater insects and to spawn. Most populations, however, stay in freshwater throughout their lives and are known as non-migratory, stream-resident or riverine populations. Anadromous fish may reach weights of 20 pounds (9 kg) but those fish which remain permanently in freshwater may only reach a weight of 2 pounds (1 kg). At least three subspecies are confined to isolated basins in the Great Basin and can tolerate saline or alkaline water. All subspecies of cutthroat trout are sought after gamefish, especially among anglers who enjoy fly fishing.

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Dolly Varden

Wikipedia Reference:

There are three species of "trout" (actually technically char fish) which are (or have been) named Dolly Varden (Salvelinus confluentus - the first species to bear the name), (Salvelinus alpinus alpinus), and three subspecies of the same species (Salvelinus malma malma), (Salvelinus malma miyabei), and (Salvelinus malma krascheninnikova), originally named because their colorful appearance was reminiscent of the calico dress fabric pattern associated with the Dickens' character.

Bull Trout

Wikipedia Reference:

The bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, is a char of the family Salmonidae. It is most commonly found in the high mountains of western North America, ranging from the Yukon to northern Nevada. A population of bull trout exists east of the Continental Divide in Alberta, where the bull trout is the provincial fish. S. Confluentus has also been known by the name "Dolly Varden trout."

It has been recorded at up to 103 cm in length and weighing 14.5 kg. Its head and mouth are unusually large for salmonids, giving it its name.

The bull trout favors the deep pools of the larger cold lakes and rivers, where it feeds on zooplankton and zoobenthos, especially chironomids. As they grow larger, they begin to feed heavily upon other fish. Indeed, the fish was once maligned out of fear that they threatened populations of other native species more prized by anglers. In coastal Washington, some of the southernmost populations of bull trout feed heavily on salmon eggs and fry, as well as fish.

Confusingly, a different species (Salvelinus malma malma), today commonly called the Dolly Varden trout, is also known as "bull trout" in Canada; there has been historic confusion between the two species, likely due to an over-lapping range, similar appearance, and an over-lapping variation in appearance among members of the two species.

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